ll.url

Module implementing URLs

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ll.url contains an RFC 2396 compliant implementation of URLs and classes for accessing resource metadata as well as file like classes for reading and writing resource data.

These three levels of functionality are implemented in three classes:

URL

URL objects are the names of resources and can be used and modified, regardless of the fact whether these resources actually exits. URL objects never hits the hard drive or the net.

Connection

Connection objects contain functionality that accesses and changes file metadata (like last modified date, permission bits, directory structure etc.). A connection object can be created by calling the connect method on a URL object.

Resource

Resource objects are file like objects that work with the actual bytes that make up the file data. This functionality lives in the Resource class and its subclasses. Creating a resource is done by calling the open method on a Connection or a URL.

def mime2dt​(s):

def httpdate​(dt):

Return a string suitable for a "Last-Modified" and "Expires" header.

dt is a datetime.datetime object in UTC.

def _normalizepath​(path_segments):

Internal helper function for normalizing a path list.

Should be equivalent to RFC2396, Section 5.2 (6) (c)-(f) with the exception of removing empty path_segments.

def _escape​(s, safe='\x00\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06\x07\x08\t\n\x0b\x0c\r\x0e\x0f\x10\x11\x12\x13\x14\x15\x16\x17\x18\x19\x1a\x1b\x1c\x1d\x1e\x1f !"#$%&\'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~\x7f'):

def _urlencode​(query_parts):

def compilepattern​(pattern, ignorecase=False):

def matchpatterns​(name, include, exclude):

class Context​(object):

Working with URLs (e.g. calling URL.open or URL.connect) involves Connection objects. To avoid constantly creating new connections you can pass a Context object to those methods. Connections will be stored in the Context object and will be reused by those methods.

A Context object can also be used as a context manager. This context object will be used for all open and connect calls inside the with block. (Note that after the end of the with block all connections will be closed.)

def __init__​(self):

def closeall​(self):

Close and drop all connections in this context.

def __enter__​(self):

def __exit__​(self, *exc_info):

class ThreadLocalContext​(_thread._local):

def getcontext​(context):

class Cursor​(object):

A Cursor object is used by the walk method during directory traversal. It contains information about the state of the traversal and can be used to influence which directories are traversed and in which order.

Information about the state of the traversal is provided in the following attributes:

rooturl

The URL where traversal has been started (i.e. the object for which the walk method has been called)

url

The current URL being traversed.

event

A string that specifies which event is currently handled. Possible values are: "beforedir", "afterdir" and "file". A "beforedir" event is emitted before a directory is entered. "afterdir" is emitted after a directory has been entered. "file" is emitted when a file is encountered.

isdir

True if url refers to a directory.

isfile

Tur if url refers to a regular file.

The following attributes specify which part of the tree should be traversed:

beforedir

Should the generator yield "beforedir" events?

afterdir

Should the generator yield "afterdir" events?

file

Should the generator yield "file" events?

enterdir

Should the directory be entered?

Note that if any of these attributes is changed by the code consuming the generator, this new value will be used for the next traversal step once the generator is resumed and will be reset to its initial value (specified in the constructor) afterwards.

def __init__​(self, url, beforedir=True, afterdir=False, file=True, enterdir=False):

Create a new Cursor object for a tree traversal rooted at the node node.

The arguments beforedir, afterdir, file and enterdir are used as the initial values for the attributes of the same name. (see the class docstring for info about their use).

def restore​(self):

Restore the attributes beforedir, afterdir, file and enterdir to their initial value.

class Connection​(object):

A Connection object is used for accessing and modifying the metadata associated with a file. It is created by calling the connect method on a URL object.

def stat​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Return the result of a stat call on the file url.

def lstat​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Return the result of a stat call on the file url. Like stat, but does not follow symbolic links.

def chmod​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Set the access mode of the file url to mode.

def chown​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Change the owner and/or group of the file url.

def lchown​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Change the owner and/or group of the file url (ignoring symbolic links).

def uid​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Return the user id of the owner of the file url.

def gid​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Return the group id the file url belongs to.

def owner​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Return the name of the owner of the file url.

def group​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Return the name of the group the file url belongs to.

def mimetype​(self, url):

Return the mimetype of the file url.

def exists​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Test whether the file url exists.

def isfile​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Test whether the resource url is a file.

def isdir​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Test whether the resource url is a directory.

def ismount​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Test whether the resource url is a mount point.

def access​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Test for access to the file/resource url.

def size​(self, url):

Return the size of the file url.

def imagesize​(self, url):

Return the size of the image url (if the resource is an image file) as a (width, height) tuple. This requires the PIL.

def cdate​(self, url):

Return the "metadate change" date of the file/resource url as a datetime.datetime object in UTC.

def adate​(self, url):

Return the last access date of the file/resource url as a datetime.datetime object in UTC.

def mdate​(self, url):

Return the last modification date of the file/resource url as a datetime.datetime object in UTC.

def resheaders​(self, url):

Return the MIME headers for the file/resource url.

def remove​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Remove the file url.

def rmdir​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Remove the directory url.

def rename​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Renames url to target. This might not work if target has a different scheme than url (or is on a different server).

def chdir​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Change the current directory to url.

def mkdir​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Create the directory url.

def makedirs​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Create the directory url and all intermediate ones.

def walk​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Return an iterator for traversing the directory hierarchy rooted at the directory url.

Each item produced by the iterator is a Cursor object. It contains information about the state of the traversal and can be used to influence which parts of the directory hierarchy are traversed and in which order.

The arguments beforedir, afterdir, file and enterdir specify how the directory hierarchy should be traversed. For more information see the Cursor class.

Note that the Cursor object is reused by walk, so you can't rely on any attributes remaining the same across calls to next.

The following example shows how to traverse the current directory, print all files except those in certain directories:

from ll import url

for cursor in url.here().walk(beforedir=True, afterdir=False, file=True):
   if cursor.isdir:
      if cursor.url.path[-2] in (".git", "build", "dist", "__pycache__"):
         cursor.enterdir = False
   else:
      print(cursor.url)

def listdir​(self, url, include=None, exclude=None, ignorecase=False):

Iterates over items in the directory url. The items produced are URL objects relative to url.

With the optional include argument, this only lists items whose names match the given pattern. Items matching the optional pattern exclude will not be listed. include and exclude can be strings (which will be interpreted as fnmatch style filename patterns) or lists of strings. If ignorecase is true case-insensitive name matching will be performed.

def files​(self, url, include=None, exclude=None, ignorecase=False):

Iterates over files in the directory url. The items produced are URL objects relative to url.

With the optional include argument, this only lists files whose names match the given pattern. Files matching the optional pattern exclude will not be listed. include and exclude can be strings (which will be interpreted as fnmatch style filename patterns) or lists of strings. If ignorecase is true case-insensitive name matching will be performed.

def dirs​(self, url, include=None, exclude=None, ignorecase=False):

Iterates over directories in the directory url. The items produced are URL objects relative to url.

With the optional include argument, this only directories items whose names match the given pattern. Directories matching the optional pattern exclude will not be listed. include and exclude can be strings (which will be interpreted as fnmatch style filename patterns) or lists of strings. If ignorecase is true case-insensitive name matching will be performed.

def walkall​(self, url, include=None, exclude=None, enterdir=None, skipdir=None, ignorecase=False):

Recursively iterate over files and subdirectories. The iterator yields URL objects naming each child URL of the directory url and its descendants relative to url. This performs a depth-first traversal, returning each directory before all its children.

With the optional include argument, only yield items whose names match the given pattern. Items matching the optional pattern exclude will not be listed. Directories that don't match the optional pattern enterdir or match the pattern skipdir will not be traversed. include, exclude, enterdir and skipdir can be strings (which will be interpreted as fnmatch style filename patterns) or lists of strings. If ignorecase is true case-insensitive name matching will be performed.

def walkfiles​(self, url, include=None, exclude=None, enterdir=None, skipdir=None, ignorecase=False):

Return a recursive iterator over files in the directory url.

With the optional include argument, only yield files whose names match the given pattern. Files matching the optional pattern exclude will not be listed. Directories that don't match the optional pattern enterdir or match the pattern skipdir will not be traversed. include, exclude, enterdir and skipdir can be strings (which will be interpreted as fnmatch style filename patterns) or lists of strings. If ignorecase is true case-insensitive name matching will be performed.

def walkdirs​(self, url, include=None, exclude=None, enterdir=None, skipdir=None, ignorecase=False):

Return a recursive iterator over subdirectories in the directory url.

With the optional include argument, only yield directories whose names match the given pattern. Items matching the optional pattern exclude will not be listed. Directories that don't match the optional pattern enterdir or match the pattern skipdir will not be traversed. include, exclude, enterdir and skipdir can be strings (which will be interpreted as fnmatch style filename patterns) or lists of strings. If ignorecase is true case-insensitive name matching will be performed.

def open​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Open url for reading or writing. open returns a Resource object.

Which additional parameters are supported depends on the actual resource created. Some common parameters are:

mode (string)

A string indicating how the file is to be opened (just like the mode argument for the builtin open (e.g. "rb" or "wb").

headers (mapping)

Additional headers to use for an HTTP request.

data (byte string)

Request body to use for an HTTP POST request.

python (string or None)

Name of the Python interpreter to use on the remote side (used by ssh URLs)

nice (int or None)

Nice level for the remote python (used by ssh URLs)

def _unescape​(string, encoding='utf-8', errors='replace'):

Like unquote(), but also replace plus signs by spaces, as required for

unquoting HTML form values.

unquote_plus('%7e/abc+def') -> '~/abc def'

class LocalConnection​(Connection):

def _url2filename​(self, url):

def stat​(self, url):

def lstat​(self, url):

def chmod​(self, url, mode):

def _chown​(self, func, url, owner, group):

def chown​(self, url, owner=None, group=None):

def lchown​(self, url, owner=None, group=None):

def chdir​(self, url):

def mkdir​(self, url, mode=511):

def makedirs​(self, url, mode=511):

def uid​(self, url):

def gid​(self, url):

def owner​(self, url):

def group​(self, url):

def exists​(self, url):

def isfile​(self, url):

def isdir​(self, url):

def ismount​(self, url):

def access​(self, url, mode):

def remove​(self, url):

def rmdir​(self, url):

def rename​(self, url, target):

def _walk​(self, cursor, base, name):

def walk​(self, url, beforedir=True, afterdir=False, file=True, enterdir=True):

def open​(self, url, *args, **kwargs):

class SshConnection​(Connection):

def __init__​(self, context, server, python=None, nice=None):

def close​(self):

def _url2filename​(self, url):

def _send​(self, filename, cmd, *args, **kwargs):

def stat​(self, url):

def lstat​(self, url):

def chmod​(self, url, mode):

def chown​(self, url, owner=None, group=None):

def lchown​(self, url, owner=None, group=None):

def chdir​(self, url):

def mkdir​(self, url, mode=511):

def makedirs​(self, url, mode=511):

def uid​(self, url):

def gid​(self, url):

def owner​(self, url):

def group​(self, url):

def exists​(self, url):

def isfile​(self, url):

def isdir​(self, url):

def ismount​(self, url):

def access​(self, url, mode):

def remove​(self, url):

def rmdir​(self, url):

def _cmdwithtarget​(self, cmdname, url, target):

def rename​(self, url, target):

def _walk​(self, cursor, base, name):

def walk​(self, url, beforedir=True, afterdir=False, file=True, enterdir=True):

def open​(self, url, *args, **kwargs):

def __repr__​(self):

class URLConnection​(Connection):

def mimetype​(self, url):

def size​(self, url):

def imagesize​(self, url):

def mdate​(self, url):

def resheaders​(self, url):

def isdir​(self, url):

def open​(self, url, mode='rb', headers=None, data=None):

def here​(scheme='file'):

Return the current directory as an URL object.

def home​(user='', scheme='file'):

Return the home directory of the current user (or the user named user, if user is specified) as an URL object:

>>> url.home()
URL('file:/home/walter/')
>>> url.home("andreas")
URL('file:/home/andreas/')

def root​():

Return a blank root URL, i.e. URL("root:").

def File​(name, scheme='file'):

Turn a filename into an URL object:

>>> url.File("a#b")
URL('file:a%23b')

def Dir​(name, scheme='file'):

Turns a directory name into an URL object, just like File, but ensures that the path is terminated with a /:

>>> url.Dir("a#b")
URL('file:a%23b/')

def Ssh​(user, host, path='~/'):

Return a ssh URL for the user user on the host host with the path path.:obj:path (defaulting to the users home directory) must be a path in URL notation (i.e. use / as directory separator):

>>> url.Ssh("root", "www.example.com", "~joe/public_html/index.html")
URL('ssh://root@www.example.com/~joe/public_html/index.html')

If the path starts with ~/ it is relative to this users home directory, if it starts with ~user it's relative to the home directory of the user user. In all othercases the path is considered to be absolute.

def first​(urls):

Return the first URL from urls that exists as a real file or directory. None entries in urls will be skipped.

def firstdir​(urls):

Return the first URL from urls that exists as a real directory. None entries in urls will be skipped.

def firstfile​(urls):

Return the first URL from urls that exists as a real file. None entries in urls will be skipped.

class Resource​(object):

A Resource is a base class that provides a file-like interface to local and remote files, URLs and other resources.

Attributes

Each resource object has the following attributes:

url

The URL for which this resource has been opened (i.e. foo.open().url is foo if foo is a URL object);

name

A string version of url;

closed

A bool specifying whether the resource has been closed (i.e. whether the close method has been called).

Methods

In addition to file methods (like read, readlines, write and close) a resource object might provide the following methods:

finalurl

Return the real URL of the resource (this might be different from the url attribute in case of a redirect).

size

Return the size of the file/resource.

mdate

Return the last modification date of the file/resource as a datetime.datetime object in UTC.

mimetype

Return the mimetype of the file/resource.

imagesize

Return the size of the image (if the resource is an image file) as a (width, height) tuple. This requires the PIL.

def finalurl​(self):

def imagesize​(self):

def __enter__​(self):

def __exit__​(self, *exc_info):

def __repr__​(self):

class FileResource​(Resource):

A subclass of Resource that handles local files.

def __init__​(self, url, mode='rb', *args, **kwargs):

def __getattr__​(self, name):

def __iter__​(self):

def close​(self):

property closed:

def __get__​(self):

def size​(self):

def mdate​(self):

def mimetype​(self):

class RemoteFileResource​(Resource):

A subclass of Resource that handles remote files (those using the ssh scheme).

def __init__​(self, connection, url, mode='rb', *args, **kwargs):

def __repr__​(self):

def _send​(self, filename, cmd, *args, **kwargs):

def close​(self):

property closed:

def __get__​(self):

def read​(self, size=-1):

def readline​(self, size=-1):

def readlines​(self, size=-1):

def __iter__​(self):

def __next__​(self):

def seek​(self, offset, whence=0):

def tell​(self):

def truncate​(self, size=None):

def write​(self, string):

def writelines​(self, strings):

def flush​(self):

def size​(self):

def mdate​(self):

def mimetype​(self):

class URLResource​(Resource):

A subclass of Resource that handles HTTP, FTP and other URLs (i.e. those that are not handled by FileResource or RemoteFileResource.

def __init__​(self, url, mode='rb', headers=None, data=None):

def __getattr__​(self, name):

def close​(self):

property closed:

def __get__​(self):

def finalurl​(self):

def mimetype​(self):

def resheaders​(self):

def encoding​(self):

def mdate​(self):

def size​(self):

def read​(self, size=-1):

def readline​(self, size=-1):

def resdata​(self):

def imagesize​(self):

def __iter__​(self):

class SchemeDefinition​(object):

A SchemeDefinition instance defines the properties of a particular URL scheme.

def __init__​(self, scheme, usehierarchy, useserver, usefrag, islocal=False, isremote=False, defaultport=None):

Create a new SchemeDefinition instance. Arguments are:

  • scheme: The name of the scheme;

  • usehierarchy: Specifies whether this scheme uses hierarchical URLs or opaque URLs (i.e. whether hier_part or opaque_part from the BNF in RFC 2396 is used);

  • useserver: Specifies whether this scheme uses an Internet-based server authority component or a registry of naming authorities (only for hierarchical URLs);

  • usefrag: Specifies whether this scheme uses fragments (according to the BNF in RFC 2396 every scheme does, but it doesn't make sense for e.g. "javascript", "mailto" or "tel");

  • islocal: Specifies whether URLs with this scheme refer to local files;

  • isremote: Specifies whether URLs with this scheme refer to remote files (there may be schemes which are neither local nor remote, e.g. "mailto");

  • defaultport: The default port for this scheme (only for schemes using server based authority).

def connect​(self, url, context=None, **kwargs):

Create a Connection for the URL url (which must have self as the scheme).

def _connect​(self, url, context=None, **kwargs):

def open​(self, *args, **kwargs):

def closeall​(self, context):

Close all connections active for this scheme in the context context.

def __repr__​(self):

class LocalSchemeDefinition​(SchemeDefinition):

def open​(self, *args, **kwargs):

class SshSchemeDefinition​(SchemeDefinition):

def _connect​(self, url, context=None, **kwargs):

def open​(self, url, mode='rb', context=None, python=None, nice=None):

def closeall​(self, context):

class Path​(object):

def __init__​(self, path=None):

def _prefix​(cls, path):

def insert​(self, index, *others):

def startswith​(self, prefix):

Return whether self starts with the path prefix. prefix will be converted to a Path if it isn't one.

def endswith​(self, suffix):

Return whether self ends with the path suffix. suffix will be converted to a Path if it isn't one. If suffix is absolute a normal comparison will be done.

def clone​(self):

def __repr__​(self):

def __str__​(self):

def __eq__​(self, other):

def __ne__​(self, other):

def __hash__​(self):

def __len__​(self):

def __getitem__​(self, index):

def __setitem__​(self, index, value):

def __delitem__​(self, index):

def __contains__​(self, item):

property isabs:

Is the path absolute?

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, isabs):

def __delete__​(self):

def _setpathorsegments​(self, path):

property path:

The complete path as a string.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, path):

def __delete__​(self):

property segments:

The path as a list of (name, param) tuples.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, path):

def __delete__​(self):

property file:

The filename without the path, i.e. the name part of the last component of path. The baz.html part of http://user@www.example.com/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, file):

Setting the filename preserves the parameter in the last segment.

def __delete__​(self):

Deleting the filename preserves the parameter in the last segment.

property ext:

The filename extension of the last segment of the path. The html part of http://user@www.example.com/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, ext):

def __delete__​(self):

def withext​(self, ext):

Return a new Path where the filename extension has been replaced with ext.

def withoutext​(self):

Return a new Path where the filename extension has been removed.

def withfile​(self, file):

Return a new Path where the filename (i.e. the name of the last component of segments) has been replaced with file.

def withoutfile​(self):

Return a new Path where the filename (i.e. the name of the last component of segments) has been removed.

def clear​(self):

def __truediv__​(self, other):

Join two paths.

def __rtruediv__​(self, other):

Right hand version of __div__. This supports list and generators as the left hand side too.

def relative​(self, basepath):

Return an relative Path rel such that basepath/rel == self`, i.e. this is the inverse operation of __div__.

If self is relative, an identical copy of self will be returned.

def reverse​(self):

def normalize​(self):

def normalized​(self):

def local​(self):

Return self converted to a filename using the file naming conventions of the OS. Parameters will be dropped in the resulting string.

def abs​(self):

Return an absolute version of self.

def real​(self):

Return the canonical version of self, eliminating all symbolic links.

class Query​(dict):

def __init__​(self, arg=None, **kwargs):

def __setitem__​(self, key, value):

def add​(self, key, *values):

class URL​(object):

An RFC 2396 compliant URL.

def __init__​(self, url=None):

Create a new URL instance. url may be a str object, or an URL (in which case you'll get a copy of url), or None (which will create an URL referring to the "current document").

def _clear​(self):

def clone​(self):

Return an identical copy self.

def _checkscheme​(scheme):

property scheme:

The URL scheme (e.g. ftp, ssh, http or mailto). The scheme will be None if the URL is a relative one.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, scheme):

The scheme will be converted to lowercase on setting (if scheme is not None, otherwise the scheme will be deleted).

def __delete__​(self):

Deletes the scheme, i.e. makes the URL relative.

property userinfo:

The user info part of the URL; i.e. the user part of http://user@www.example.com:8080/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, userinfo):

def __delete__​(self):

property host:

The host part of the URL; i.e. the www.example.com part of http://user@www.example.com:8080/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, host):

def __delete__​(self):

property port:

The port number of the URL (as an int) or None if the URL has none. The 8080 in http://user@www.example.com:8080/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, port):

def __delete__​(self):

property hostport:

The host and (if specified) the port number of the URL, i.e. the www.example.com:8080 in http://user@www.example.com:8080/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, hostport):

def __delete__​(self):

property server:

The server part of the URL; i.e. the user@www.example.com part of http://user@www.example.com/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, server):

Setting the server always works even if the current scheme does use opaque_part or reg_name but will be ignored when reassembling the URL for the url property.

def __delete__​(self):

property reg_name:

The reg_name part of the URL for hierarchical schemes that use a name based authority instead of server.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, reg_name):

def __delete__​(self):

property authority:

The authority part of the URL for hierarchical schemes. Depending on the scheme, this is either server or reg_name.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, authority):

def __delete__​(self):

property isabspath:

Specifies whether the path of a hierarchical URL is absolute, (i.e. it has a leading "/"). Note that the path will always be absolute if an authority is specified.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, isabspath):

property path:

The path segments of a hierarchical URL as a Path object.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, path):

def __delete__​(self):

property file:

The filename without the path, i.e. the name part of the last component of path. The baz.html part of http://user@www.example.com/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, file):

Setting the filename preserves the parameter in the last segment.

def __delete__​(self):

Deleting the filename preserves the parameter in the last segment.

property ext:

The filename extension of the last segment of the path. The html part of http://user@www.example.com/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, ext):

Setting the extension preserves the parameter in the last segment.

def __delete__​(self):

Deleting the extension preserves the parameter in the last segment.

property query_parts:

The query component as a dictionary, i.e. {u"spam": u"eggs"} from http://user@www.example.com/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

If the query component couldn't be parsed, query_parts will be False.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, query_parts):

def __delete__​(self):

property query:

The query component, i.e. the spam=eggs part of http://user@www.example.com/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, query):

def __delete__​(self):

property opaque_part:

The opaque part (for schemes like mailto that are not hierarchical).

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, opaque_part):

def __delete__​(self):

property frag:

The fragment identifier, which references a part of the resource, i.e. the frag part of http://user@www.example.com/bar/baz.html;xyzzy?spam=eggs#frag.

def __get__​(self):

def __set__​(self, frag):

def __delete__​(self):

property url:

The complete URL

def __get__​(self):

Getting url reassembles the URL from the components.

def __set__​(self, url):

Setting url parses url into the components. url may also be an URL instance, in which case the URL will be copied.

def __delete__​(self):

After deleting the URL the resulting object will refer to the "current document".

def withext​(self, ext):

Return a new URL where the filename extension has been replaced with ext.

def withoutext​(self):

Return a new URL where the filename extension has been removed.

def withfile​(self, file):

Return a new URL where the filename (i.e. the name of last component of path_segments) has been replaced with file.

def withoutfile​(self):

def withfrag​(self, frag):

Return a new URL where the fragment has been replaced with frag.

def withoutfrag​(self):

Return a new URL where the frag has been dropped.

def __truediv__​(self, other):

Join self with another (possible relative) URL other, to form a new URL.

other may be a str or URL object. It may be None (referring to the "current document") in which case self will be returned. It may also be a list or other iterable. For this case a list (or iterator) will be returned where __div__ will be applied to every item in the list/iterator. E.g. the following expression returns all the files in the current directory as absolute URLs (see the method files and the function here for further explanations):

>>> here = url.here()
>>> for f in here/here.files():
...   print(f)

def __rtruediv__​(self, other):

Right hand version of __div__. This supports lists and iterables as the left hand side too.

def relative​(self, baseurl):

Return an relative URL rel such that baseurl/rel == self, i.e. this is the inverse operation of __div__.

If self is relative, has a different scheme or authority than baseurl or a non-hierarchical scheme, an identical copy of self will be returned.

def __str__​(self):

def __repr__​(self):

def __bool__​(self):

Return whether the URL is not empty, i.e. whether it is not the URL referring to the start of the current document.

def __eq__​(self, other):

Return whether two URL objects are equal. Note that only properties relevant for the current scheme will be compared.

def __ne__​(self, other):

Return whether two URL objects are not equal.

def __hash__​(self):

Return a hash value for self, to be able to use URL objects as dictionary keys. You must be careful not to modify an URL as soon as you use it as a dictionary key.

def abs​(self, scheme=-1):

Return an absolute version of self (works only for local URLs).

If the argument scheme is specified, it will be used for the resulting URL otherwise the result will have the same scheme as self.

def real​(self, scheme=-1):

Return the canonical version of self, eliminating all symbolic links (works only for local URLs).

If the argument scheme is specified, it will be used for the resulting URL otherwise the result will have the same scheme as self.

def islocal​(self):

Return whether self refers to a local file, i.e. whether self is a relative URL or the scheme is root or file).

def _checklocal​(self):

def local​(self):

Return self as a local filename (which will only works if self is local (see islocal).

def _connect​(self, context=None, **kwargs):

def connect​(self, context=None, **kwargs):

Return a Connection object for accessing and modifying the metadata of self.

Whether you get a new connection object, or an existing one depends on the scheme, the URL itself, and the context passed in (as the context argument).

def open​(self, *args, **kwargs):

Open self for reading or writing. open returns a Resource object.

Which additional parameters are supported depends on the actual resource created. Some common parameters are:

mode (supported by all resources)

A string indicating how the file is to be opened (just like the mode argument for the builtin open; e.g. "rb" or "wb").

context (supported by all resources)

open needs a Connection for this URL which it gets from a Context object.

headers

Additional headers to use for an HTTP request.

data

Request body to use for an HTTP POST request.

python

Name of the Python interpreter to use on the remote side (used by ssh URLs)

nice

Nice level for the remove python (used by ssh URLs)

def openread​(self, *args, **kwargs):

def openwrite​(self, *args, **kwargs):

def import_​(self, name=None):

Import the content of the URL self as a Python module.

name can be used the specify the module name (i.e. the __name__ attribute of the module). The default determines it from the URL.

def __iter__​(self):

def stat​(self, **kwargs):

def lstat​(self, **kwargs):

def chmod​(self, mode, **kwargs):

def chown​(self, owner=None, group=None, **kwargs):

def lchown​(self, owner=None, group=None, **kwargs):

def uid​(self, **kwargs):

def gid​(self, **kwargs):

def owner​(self, **kwargs):

def group​(self, **kwargs):

def mimetype​(self, **kwargs):

def exists​(self, **kwargs):

def isfile​(self, **kwargs):

def isdir​(self, **kwargs):

def ismount​(self, **kwargs):

def access​(self, mode, **kwargs):

def size​(self, **kwargs):

def imagesize​(self, **kwargs):

def cdate​(self, **kwargs):

def adate​(self, **kwargs):

def mdate​(self, **kwargs):

def resheaders​(self, **kwargs):

def remove​(self, **kwargs):

def rmdir​(self, **kwargs):

def rename​(self, target, **kwargs):

def chdir​(self, **kwargs):

def mkdir​(self, mode=511, **kwargs):

def makedirs​(self, mode=511, **kwargs):

def walk​(self, beforedir=True, afterdir=False, file=True, enterdir=True, **kwargs):

def listdir​(self, include=None, exclude=None, ignorecase=False, **kwargs):

def files​(self, include=None, exclude=None, ignorecase=False, **kwargs):

def dirs​(self, include=None, exclude=None, ignorecase=False, **kwargs):

def walkall​(self, include=None, exclude=None, enterdir=None, skipdir=None, ignorecase=False, **kwargs):

def walkfiles​(self, include=None, exclude=None, enterdir=None, skipdir=None, ignorecase=False, **kwargs):

def walkdirs​(self, include=None, exclude=None, enterdir=None, skipdir=None, ignorecase=False, **kwargs):